The Chihuahua is the smallest dog breed in the world, but in light of the modern trend to buy tiny dogs, even that is not enough. And among the baby puppies there are especially tiny individuals, which are called “minis”. What is surprising in a mini Chihuahua, except the size, and to what it is necessary to be prepared for the future owners of such tiny dog?
Researchers believe that the ancestors of the Chihuahua are the dogs that inhabited the earliest Indian tribes. Their images are found in wall paintings from Aztec and Mayan culture, and many sculptural figures have been found in the earliest Mexican temples.
In addition, during archaeological excavations of the mounds, historians have found bones similar in structure to the skeleton of modern members of the breed. By all accounts, these dogs were revered as sacred animals and their bones were found in the tombs of chiefs and other nobles.
At home in Mexico, these little dogs were called “techichi”. Their first sight of the Europeans in the area called Chihuahua, which determined the name of the breed. Originally dogs had long hair and only much later, after their union with another breed – Chinese Crested, there were animals with short, smooth hair.
The first thing that comes to mind when seeing the doggy chihuahua, what they are cute and funny. And indeed, it’s hard to hold back a smile, so dogs of this breed are positive. There are two breed varieties: smooth-haired and long-haired.
The first type is more common, the coat of such chihuas is soft, smooth, with a glossy sheen. Slight elongation may be in the area of the neck, tail, belly and muzzle.
Dogs with short coats may have no undercoat. But if it is still there, it is a dense, short coat. Individuals with a stiff coat are not allowed for breeding.
Long-haired dogs have a soft, silky, straight or with a slight wave. There are rich combs on the limbs, ears, abdomen, and there is a pronounced collar on the neck. As for the colors, they are quite varied, individuals may have white, black, spotted or papal coat.
Rarely occur dogs with silvery gray fur with bluish or bluish tint. Dogs with such a color coat are rather difficult in breeding, as the gene responsible for the blue color, has a connection to some hereditary diseases.
Description of the mini Chihuahua breed
In spite of the deep history, the official recognition of the breed came only in the early 20th century. However, these babies almost immediately attracted attention and made the list of “secular” favorites. The approval of the standard happened in 1923, and, according to its data, dogs of this breed must correspond to the following description:
- The height of adult Chihuahuas varies from 15 to 23 cm, and weight – from one and a half kilograms to 2.5. However, in the category “mini” fall only those representatives of the breed, whose weight does not exceed 1.7 kg. These babies, though not recognized by cynological organizations as a separate species, are very popular with dog breeders.
- The head has rounded form resembling an apple, with convex forehead, distinct transition from frontal area to muzzle, and moderately shortened nose, slightly upturned. Malar space is medium in size, any color is possible. The muzzle is short, with a broad base and a pointed tip. The lips are thin, tightly set, the teeth are small and strong, creating a “scissor-type” bite. The eyes are quite large, round, with a dark iris and a very expressive look. The dog’s ears are quite large, set vertically, triangle-shaped, with rounded tips.
- Body. The neck is of medium length, there is a small bend, a suspension is absent, in male dogs it is wider and stronger than in females. The build of the Chihuahua is compact, the torso is a little bit elongated, with a strong, short back, a faintly expressed withers and a muscular loin. The croup is slightly sloping, broadened and flattened. The chest is deep and wide, the ribs are distinctly curved, but not barrel-shaped. The abdomen is perfectly taut.
- The tail is medium length, with a wide fit, wide base, and tapering toward the tip. It curves or follows the line of an oval.
- Limbs. The shoulders are well shaped and the shoulder blades are well laid out. The forelimbs are well muscled, set straight, with slightly oblique, small oval metatarsals and dense pads. The hind limbs are parallel to each other, with well-defined joint angles and metatarsals with pronounced Achilles tendons. They also end in small, oval feet.
Various indicators are taken into consideration when determining the doggie standard, with special attention paid to their height and weight.
Tips for choosing a puppy
Experts future owners warn that the smaller the Chihuahua, the greater the risk of various problems. Deciding to have a pet “mini”, the owner immediately agrees to significantly overpay – the tinier the baby of the litter, the higher its price. In addition, the cost will be affected by other factors, such as the presence of a beautiful breed face, active temperament and strong body.
As for the conformity of the standard, these indicators are not so important, since these animals are not involved in breeding and are not allowed to participate in exhibitions. When purchasing a pet as a pet, it is better to pay more attention to its health than to its exterior.
As noted above, puppies with a bluish coat (a color called “merle”) are extraordinarily beautiful. However, because of the threat to health, these individuals are culled, even if their parameters meet the standard requirements.
Because of the tiny size, the females of this breed are not capable of producing offspring on their own, and during pregnancy, there are high risks of death of both fetuses and the expectant mother. Therefore, when acquiring a baby of this breed, it is worth seriously thinking about spaying.
In addition, you should contact a specialist who is familiar with the specifics of operating on these tiny animals, because their weight implies a careful selection of doses of anesthesia drugs.
Often in puppies “miniks” observed excessively large head and enlarged fontanel, such signs signal the possibility of hydrocephalus development. It is difficult to predict whether the disease will manifest itself or not, but such babies differ from the rest – they sleep more, they are disturbed by headaches when the weather changes, and the development is slower than that of fellow dogs.
But in this case, the dog should not have signs of loss of orientation, appetite, the pet should be interested in the surrounding events and not be apathetic. Even an experienced veterinarian is unable to detect hydrocephalus in a puppy at an early age, as its symptoms appear by 3-5 months of age.
How to choose a mini puppy from a litter, because, as you know, among the babies of the same bitch can be both standard and minors? Even professionals do not know the exact answer, despite the fact that the miniature is inherent in the genetic level. After all, there are some nuances:
- In a multiple litter, puppies are born small, and up to the age of 3 months, their weight gain is slow, and after that there is a jump in growth.
- When a female gives birth to 1-2 puppies, they are usually large, eating and growing well, but if we are talking about a mini, their growth slows down after 3 months of age.
It is not necessary to react to calls of breeders to get from them super-duper small Chihuahua of new variety. In any case, the purchaser buys a baby at random, therefore, he should be ready for the fact, that the pet will grow up a little bit bigger than expected.
To lower risks, it is recommended to look closely to the litter of manufacturers, which not once gave birth, being in couple. In this case, owners may assume that the litter will again contain minnows. Or, purchase an older puppy or an adult dog that is already fully mature.
Character and training
Many people have the question, why bother training a dog that fits in the palm of your hand? But, even being a pocket variant, the Chihuahua does not cease to be a dog. Certainly, it’s easier to train such pet than bigger brothers, but you mustn’t forget about other important moments of training and education:
- The dog becomes more obedient and malleable, which means there will be fewer situations where the dog, without thinking about the risks, shows his courage and recklessness;
- the Chihuash are inclined to run away – a well-bred dog won’t behave so;
- the representatives of this breed can be combative, and quite often the clashes end badly just for the bully – again, it is possible to avoid these situations, if the pet unconditionally carries out the necessary command.
As with other breeds, training should begin with basic skills, and it should be done from puppyhood. First of all, it is worth relying on the natural aspirations of the animal – to be fed, have a cozy, comfortable place and toys for a variety of leisure.
The dog requires socialization, which means that he must be familiarized with the world around him and the creatures that live in it. You can’t keep him indoors all the time, even if he does his own filthy litter box. He should be allowed out with you, allowed to socialize with other dogs, and encouraged to make good decisions for himself.
What’s required of a well-mannered dog? He shouldn’t climb on furniture or ruin things. Some owners think that the pet will outgrow puppyhood and stop being naughty. You should not hope for this when it comes to Chihuahuas with their own principles.
Content and care
About the peculiarities of maintenance and care of the pet of a particular breed, it is better to know before the puppy crosses the threshold of the house. At first, the doggie will need the following:
- a dog bed – it can be a mattress, mat, pad or a house; the main condition – the pet must be comfortable;
- 2 bowls – pour water in one and food in the other; the choice should be guided by the size of the pet; metal is considered the best material;
- Toilet tray – initially the babies can lay a rag, later a tray is installed, with or without filler; during the accustomization it is recommended to put pieces of paper on the bottom, which attracts the dog;
- Toilet outside – Chihuahua can be led outdoors without using the litter box; in this case the dog is led out in the same time 2-3 times a day;
- toys – they have to be small, qualitative, the baby must not chew them up, swallowing pieces or object entirely;
- hair accessories – combs and brushes are selected depending on the type of hair; short-haired dogs should be combed twice a week, long-haired – daily.
- detergents – bathe individuals with short hair once every 3-4 months, with long hair – every 4-6 weeks; after the procedure it is recommended to dry them with a hair dryer; to prevent water from getting into the ear canals, it is better to cover the ears with cotton balls.
- Brush and special toothpaste – Chihuahuas often develop tartar, so brushing should be a daily routine.
Chihuahuas need regular vaccinations, parasite treatments and anthelmintics. Doggies of this breed can be fed as natural products, as well as manufactured food. Dry food must be specialized, suitable for miniature breeds.
Chihuahuas are prone to obesity, so it’s worth watching how much food the pet eats, and if there’s food left in his bowl after a meal, the portion should probably be reduced.
A pet’s natural diet should consist of meat, by-products, eggs, porridge, vegetables and fruits. Cereals are recommended to season with vegetable oil, add chopped fresh herbs. The Chihuahuas are real fastidious people, but it’s not necessary to go on the account of a pet, giving him delicious, but harmful food, capable to harm health.
Mini Chihuahua photos
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Mini Chihuahua Health
Any veterinarian will confirm, the smaller the dog, the more health problems it has, and future owners should be prepared for that. As noted, it is not uncommon for miniature puppies to have a large fontanel, which leads to the development of hydrocephalus.
In addition, 80% of these babies suffer bouts of hypoglycemia – a sharp decrease in the amount of glucose in the blood, especially often it occurs in individuals who weigh less than 650 grams. The animal may faint, and it is important for the owner to know what to do in this case. Usually breeders are engaged in artificial maintenance of the health of the offspring:
- Puppies are given shots of glucose preparations;
- periodically giving sweetened water; .
- They make sure the feeding regimen is strictly adhered to;
- Give food in small portions;
- take care that the baby is not too tired, limit play time, keep the baby in a small room.
Faced with such a pathology, the owner should consult a veterinarian. The puppy may refuse to eat, but it is not always a sign of illness. This way the baby can protest against the proposed food, usually this behavior wee “grows out” to 4-5 months.
The mini Chihuahua is not the separate breed, but only smaller representatives, which aren’t used for cultivation and show career. Gathering to get such small “for the soul”, the owner should not be upset, if his four-legged friend, instead of one and a half kg, suddenly grows up in 2 times! From this he will not become less funny, loyal and loved.